Patients Suffer Nearly 62,000 Medical Errors in Massachusetts in Single Year

Doctor with a patient at a Boston hospital.
doctor with a patient at a Boston hospital

A new report shows after medical errors, medical providers only offer 25 percent of patients and families in Massachusetts support services, such as counseling or help from a social workers. Very few patients are offered financial assistance or compensation.

New research shows patients suffered nearly 62,000 medical errors during a single year in Massachusetts, resulting in more than $617 million in related insurance claims.

The Betsy Lehman Center for Patient Safety compiled its latest report after conducting two studies. The first analyzed health insurance claims data. The second study randomly chose 5,000 households in Massachusetts. Nearly 1,000 people responded they had suffered a medical error or someone in their household or a close family member had. The center heard from 253 people in a follow-up survey.

The Betsy Lehman Center was founded following the death of Betsy Lehman in 1994. Lehman, a Boston Globe health columnist, suffered a massive overdose of chemotherapy at the Dana-Farber Cancer Institute in December 1994.

Two months after her death, Dana Farber staff informed Lehman’s family there had been a medication error. This was a rare step and the Boston Globe began investigating patient safety. Today, the Betsy Lehman Center operates as a non-regulatory state agency, reporting on medical errors and leading patient safety initiatives.

From the report:

Report “underestimates” medical errors. The Betsy Lehman Center said its reporting likely underestimates the number of medical errors in Massachusetts. This is because diagnostic and medication errors may not be reliably tracked by analyzing insurance claims.

Emotional toll. Patients and their families suffer for years after medical errors. Nearly 30 percent saw an impact on their physical health for at least one year or more, according to the report. One-third of the respondents were still anxious 3-6 years later. One in 5 were depressed and more than 25 percent were sad or angry.

Avoiding health care. One third of survey respondents said they “sometimes” or “always” avoid medical care in general. Two thirds continue to carry reduced levels of trust during medical care. More than half of the respondents still avoid individual doctors and health care systems, even though 3 to 6 years had passed since the incident.

Medical errors can happen anywhere. Massachusetts has highly rated hospitals, but similar rankings are not available for outpatient and long-term care. Many medical errors happen in outpatient settings. In fact, one in 20 patients suffers a medical error during outpatient care, according to research published by Quality & Safety in 2014.

Medical errors are most common in hospitals (41 percent) and doctor’s offices or clinics (27 percent) and the emergency room (15 percent). Another 17 percent of mistakes happen in other healthcare settings, including pharmacies, dental offices and nursing homes.

Massachusetts “I’m sorry” law. Massachusetts passed the health payment reform act in 2012. The law provides physicians a “cooling off” time to disclose medical errors and apologize to patients and families. Physicians are required to inform patients when there is an “unanticipated outcome with significant medical complication resulting from the provider’s mistake.”

Yet the report shows many doctors are not apologizing. Just 19 percent of those surveyed said they received an apology from a doctor. Most of those – 82 percent – felt they received a sincere apology.

After mistakes, just 25 percent of patients and families were offered support services by medical providers. About 8 percent were offered psychological counseling. Another 13 percent were offered spiritual support from a religious advisor. Another 11 percent were asked if they needed assistance from a social worker.

Most providers are not offering additional financial assistance or compensation. Just 3 percent offered patients and families help paying out-of-pocket medical costs following a medical error. Two percent of patients and families received financial compensation for injuries caused by medical errors.

About Breakstone, White & Gluck

The Boston personal injury lawyers at Breakstone, White & Gluck specialize in medical malpractice. We have been consistently recognized for our results for clients in cases involving medical errors, surgical malpractice, failure to diagnose cancer, ambulance negligence and nursing home neglect.

If you or a family member has been injured, learn your legal rights. For a free legal consultation, contact Breakstone, White & Gluck at 800-379-1244 or 617-723-7676. You can also use our contact form.

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Is Your Doctor’s Office Safe? Read Our 2018 Checklist for Medical Safety

Doctor and patient in medical office

One tip for 2018? Do your online research before you visit the doctor. Read our blog to learn which websites are worth visiting.

As the New Year begins, many of us have questions about our medical health. Some of us are trying to understand the fine print on new health insurance policies while others prepare for medical appointments or surgical procedures. 

A doctor’s office should be a safe place. But as medical malpractice lawyers here in Boston, we know the reality is that medical mistakes can happen at any stage during medical care, from the doctor’s office to the pharmacy to surgery. Mistakes are not rare either.

Medical errors are now the third leading cause of death in the U.S., according to a 2016 study out of John Hopkins University. Researchers analyzed 8 years of medical death rates, concluding more than 250,000 deaths each year now arise out of medical mistakes. 

This is an unbelievable number. For comparison, we looked at figures from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). The CDC reported heart disease, cancer and chronic lower respiratory disease were the top causes of death in 2016.  According to the John Hopkins’ study, about 95,000 more people are now dying from medical errors than chronic lower respiratory disease each year.

At Breakstone, White & Gluck, our attorneys are leaders in the field of medical malpractice law in Massachusetts. We offer these safety tips for patients in 2018:

  1. Check on your doctor and specialists. You can learn about your doctor and specialists by using the Physician Search service, offered by the Massachusetts Board of Registration. This service will provide you with information about the doctor’s education, experience, insurance plans accepted and locations where they practice. More important, it will offer you information about criminal convictions, discipline actions and medical malpractice payments the physician has made and reported to the state. Note that some of this data is limited to the past 10 years. Other sources of information are the doctor’s website and online reviews.
  2. Check your hospital. Before you book a surgery is a good time to check online. Each year, the federal government reports on hospitals with a high rate of patient injuries. Nine Massachusetts hospitals made the 2018 list and will now lose 1 percent in Medicare payments for a year. These hospitals include Massachusetts Eye and Ear Infirmary in Boston; Good Samaritan Medical Center in Brockton; MetroWest Medical Center, Framingham and Lawrence General Hospital, Lawrence. In Central and Western Massachusetts: Baystate Franklin Medical Center, Greenfield; Clinton Hospital Association, Clinton; Mercy Medical Center, Springfield; Nashoba Valley Medical Center, Ayer and Noble Hospital, Westfield.
  3. Bring a patient advocate. Don’t go alone. It is your right to bring a patient advocate with you to a medical appointment. This is one of many protections in the Massachusetts Patients Bill of Rights, G.L. c. 111, § 70E. Bring a spouse, a friend or someone you trust to help you take notes on test results and your doctor’s instructions on follow up care. Your patient advocate is also there to observe and ask questions and speak up for you if they see something that doesn’t look right.
  4. Carry your health insurance card with you. If you recently received a new card, make sure you are carrying it. Also carry your children’s cards and make sure to periodically review emergency contact forms for you, your spouse, your children and other family members, including elderly relatives. If something happens, you want to know as soon as possible so you can be on site as your love one receives medical care.
  5. Medical records. Remember you have a right to your medical records. Look for a doctor who will provide you with online access to your medical records. Before you schedule a surgery, search online for the hospital’s medical record office. Learn what you will need to do to request your medical records after your procedure.

We hope our tips help you and your family enjoy a healthy 2018. However, if you are injured as a result of medical care, it is critical to contact an experienced Boston medical malpractice lawyer as soon as possible. Do not sign any paperwork offered by a hospital or medical office without learning your rights and understanding what treatment you will require going forward.

About Breakstone, White & Gluck
To learn more about hiring a medical malpractice lawyer, please watch our video.
To learn more about our work, read our medical malpractice case results.

About Attorney Marc L. Breakstone
Attorney Marc L. Breakstone has over 30 years experience representing plaintiffs injured by medical malpractice in Massachusetts. Attorney Breakstone has been consistently recognized for his work, including on the Top 100 New England Super Lawyers list and Top 100 Massachusetts Super Lawyers list, as well as by U.S. News – Best Lawyers. Read more about Attorney Breakstone.

Jury Awards $1.5 Million to Attorney Marc L. Breakstone’s Client in Medical Malpractice Case Against American Medical Response Ambulance Company

Ambulance Crew Dropped Patient from Stretcher onto her Head, Causing 

Fatal Head Injuries and Wrongful Death

American Medical Response, the largest ambulance company in Massachusetts and the United States, has been found responsible for the death of Barbara J. Grimes and awarded her family $1.5 million in wrongful death damages.

The May 4, 2015 verdict followed a two week trial in Middlesex Superior Court.
The jury found that EMTs Wesley Garber and Peter Crowell negligently dropped
Ms. Grimes, a 67 year old dialysis patient on her head while rolling her on a
stretcher which tipped over. The incident occurred on January 31, 2009 in the
parking lot of Fresenius Medical Care in Plymouth, Massachusetts.

Photo: Barbara J. Grimes on right, next to her sister Patty Zaccarelli

Comments from the Family and Family Attorney Marc L. Breakstone

According to family attorney Marc L. Breakstone, Barbara Grimes, then 67 years old, was being transported on an ambulance stretcher after receiving dialysis treatment in Plymouth, MA. While rolling the stretcher to the back of the ambulance, the AMR crew carelessly tipped the stretcher over causing Ms. Grimes to strike her head on the pavement. The blow caused a massive brain hemorrhage which took her life 5 days later.

The incident was investigated by the Massachusetts Department of Public Health
which found numerous clinical deficiencies. AMR was cited by the Massachusetts
Department of Public Health for these deficiencies. During the trial, it was revealed that AMR withheld documents from a state investigator from the Office of Emergency Medical Services, which regulates ambulance services in Massachusetts.

Attorney Breakstone:

“This was an unnecessary death which should have been prevented by simple precautions. If the ambulance crew had only followed company safety policies regarding stretcher operation, it would not have toppled over. This needless death was easily preventable,” Breakstone added.

Breakstone also said “The ambulance crew claimed that the stretcher malfunctioned, but AMR never inspected the stretcher and no defect was ever found. Their explanation was simply not believable and the jury rejected it squarely.”

Family Members:

Peter Zacarelli, Jr., the brother of Ms. Grimes, called his sister’s death “senseless.” He said, “These EMTs should have been more careful. They were not paying attention when they rolled the stretcher sideways without holding it to make sure it did not tip over. It is shocking that they could be so careless. Our family is haunted by this senseless loss. We are so thankful to the jury for seeing through the lies and deceptions of AMR which treated our sister like a sack of discarded trash. After more than six years, the truth finally came out at trial.”

“Barbara was the most caring and loving person you could ever want to meet,” according to her sister Patricia Zacarelli. “She was all about doing for others and taking care of family. It is such a shame that she should die in the hands of EMTs whose job it was to safely transport her home from dialysis,” Ms. Zacarelli stated.

American Medical Response, based in Greenwood Village, Colorado, is the largest ambulance company in the United States. It has more than 18,000 employees in 40 states, 2100 communities and boasts more than 3 million patient transports in 2014.

View the PDF version.

Background Information About Marc L. Breakstone

Marc BreakstoneMarc L. Breakstone has established a reputation as one of the top personal injury and medical malpractice lawyers in New England. He has been selected as one of the Top 100 Super Lawyers in New England (2009, 2011, 2012, 2013) and one of the Top 100 Super Lawyers in Massachusetts (2006-2014). He has also been selected by
his peers as one of the top medical malpractice plaintiff’s lawyers in the Super Lawyer balloting from 2004 to 2014. In 2002, Mr. Breakstone was honored as one of ten “Lawyers of the Year” in 2002 by Massachusetts Lawyers Weekly.

Massachusetts Lawyers Weekly: Med-Mal Lawyers Shed Light on Arbitration Realities

marcbreakstone_125.jpgAttorney Marc Breakstone was featured today in a front page article in Massachusetts Lawyers Weekly concerning factors which may influence plaintiffs’ attorneys to take medical malpractice cases to arbitration and waive the right to a jury trial.

Attorney Breakstone, a medical malpractice lawyer who has practiced in Boston for 28 years, has obtained record-setting awards for clients in medical malpractice cases involving surgical malpractice, failure to diagnose cancer and ambulance negligence.

Breakstone was among a group of Boston medical malpractice lawyers who were interviewed by Massachusetts Lawyers Weekly. The lawyers cited a number of reasons for taking cases to arbitration, including the ability to remove some of the risk when insurance companies agree to pay plaintiffs within a range of compensation limits at the end of the process.

Breakstone said the personal needs of a plaintiff may also be a valid reason for choosing arbitration. He recalled the case of a terminally ill patient whose trial was delayed.

“I was uncertain my client was going to live that long,” Breakstone said. “I elected to waive a jury and arbitrate the case so that my client could have her day in court, so to speak, and see her case to the end.”

A plaintiff’s personal circumstances may also come into play, Breakstone said. For instance, if a plaintiff is an undocumented immigrant, jurors may consider that over the facts of the case.

“You’re more likely to get a fair hearing in front of an arbitrator who’s more likely to disregard those factors,” Breakstone said.

Arbitration may also be the best choice in cases when aggravating factors work against a defendant, such as substance abuse, Breakstone said. In those cases, the plaintiff may obtain a higher award from an arbitrator.

“A jury is more likely to be upset and want to punish the defendant in a compensatory award than an arbitrator would,” he said.

Read the Massachusetts Lawyers Weekly article (subscription required).
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Surgical Malpractice Lawsuit Alleges Boston Neurosurgeon Used the Wrong Dye During Spine Procedure

medical-surgery-blog.jpgTwo brothers filed a medical malpractice lawsuit against a Boston hospital last month, alleging their mother was killed because a neurosurgeon used the wrong dye during a spine procedure.

This is one of two serious cases which prompted a Medicare inquiry in February, according to a Boston Globe report. The other came in January, when a patient suffered an embolism, heart attack and severe brain damage after a resident removed his intravenous tube without elevating his feet.

The media report comes as hospital safety and health costs are being closely watched here in Massachusetts:

A few reports from August:

  • The Department of Public Health’s new tracking system reported a 70 percent increase in serious medical errors at acute-care hospitals in 2013. One of the biggest increases was in surgical malpractice cases where doctors operated on the wrong body part.
  • Health insurance rates will increase 3.1 percent in 2015, more than this year because of administrative costs associated with implementing the federal Affordable Care Act.

August also marked two years since Massachusetts adopted a health care cost containment law, forecast to save $200 billion over 15 years. Massachusetts passed the law in part to address health care costs associated passage of the mandatory health insurance law passed here in 2006, the first in the nation.

One measure of the 2012 law was a new 180-day cooling off period for patients and families who want to file medical malpractice lawsuits. Hospitals and physicians are given time to apologize without legal repercussions and to negotiate a settlement.

But the law did not prevent a lawsuit in the case of a 74-year-old Watertown woman who died last November, the day after her surgery at Tufts Medical Center. Her sons filed the lawsuit against the hospital, 12 pharmacists, nurses and surgeons.

The Boston Globe reported Tufts Medical Center had no comment on the surgical malpractice lawsuit, which is pending. But regulators who investigated the case reported a neurosurgeon treating the woman for back pain requested a special dye to test the location of tubing which had been placed into her spine.

When the pharmacy did not have the right dye, they replaced it with another type, MD-76. The surgeon checked the dye label, hospital officials say, and injected it twice, even though its label read, “not for intrathecal use.” This means do inject it in the spine.

The Boston Globe quoted experts who called this a form of “cognitive bias,” when a person sees what they expect to see rather than what is actually there.

Tufts Medical Center Implements Changes
According to the The Boston Globe, Tufts Medical Center now requires nurses to submit detailed written medication orders to pharmacists. It has also implemented a new rule requiring two staff members to remove intravenous tubes and use a checklist that includes proper positioning of the patient.

Surgical Error at Tufts Prompts Widespread Changes, The Boston Globe.

Insurance Rates Will Increase for Small Business, The Boston Globe.
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Americans File “So Few” Medical Malpractice Lawsuits, Doctor Writes

emergency-room-200.jpgA recent article in The Boston Globe magazine explores the role of apologies from doctors in resolving medical malpractice claims. In the Jan. 27 article, Dr. Darshak Sanhavi writes that the “vast majority of major medical errors never see the light of day,” citing data from Harvard-affiliated hospitals which showed only 90 malpractice claims involving children were filed between 2006 and 2010.

“The remarkable thing, therefore, isn’t that Americans file too many malpractice lawsuits, it’s that they file so few,” Sanhavi writes. “Some physicians courageously fess up and communicate with compassion after an error and defuse a patient’s anger. At the same time, some appear to sweep errors under the rug.”

“This in depth look at the current system reveals that most serious medical errors that result in harm to patients never result in claims,” said Boston attorney Marc L. Breakstone. “To the contrary, only a very small number of medical error cases ever get filed and even a smaller number result in some type of compensation to the injured patients or their families. Secrecy and non-disclosure are the real problems with our current system. We need more transparency so that victims of medical errors have an opportunity to get fair compensation.”

Article Highlights:

Michigan Model. In 2004, the University of Michigan Health System implemented its “disclosure with early offer” program. The goal of the program was to have impartial medical providers review claims and determine whether medical mistakes causing harm had occurred. If so, doctors and other medical providers were encouraged to apologize to patients in person while the hospital offered prompt financial settlements. By 2006, the program was credited with reducing medical malpractice lawsuits by more than 50 percent and reducing the average time to resolve a claim from 21 months to 10.

Massachusetts “Cooling Off” Period. Last August, Gov. Deval Patrick signed into law a health care cost containment bill that includes measures to streamline medical malpractice claims. Now before an injured patient files a medical malpractice lawsuit, they must wait out a 182-day “cooling off” period, providing time to negotiate a settlement with a hospital out of court. The legislation includes $135 million in grants to help community hospitals adopt electronic medical records systems.

Also last year, a coalition of seven Massachusetts hospitals adopted a “Road Map to Reform” plan. It is more commonly known as the “I’m sorry” plan because medical providers and hospitals are encouraged to provide patients an apology and financial settlement in cases involving medical mistakes. The program includes Mass General Hospital and Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center and was initially underwritten by $1 million from insurers and a medical group.

CRICO. The Controlled Rick Insurance Company (CRICO) is the not-for-profit consortium which pays claims from Harvard-affiliated hospitals. The Boston Globe magazine article details its role in analyzing records to identify trends of medical mistakes. The model was used in the 1980s by the American Society of Anesthesiologists and resulted in a new standard of care being adopted in 1986. In the 1990s, when many doctors were being sued for failure to diagnose breast cancer, CRICO analyzed claims and offered doctors insurance discounts for learning a new treatment procedure.


Medical malpractice: Why is it so hard for doctors to apologize? The Boston Globe.

The Michigan model: medical malpractice and patient safety at UMHS.

Patrick signs health care cost containment bill, The Boston Globe.
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Medical Malpractice by Employee Likely in Hospital Hepatitis C Outbreak

syringe-150.jpgExeter Hospital in New Hampshire is facing allegations of medical malpractice after 19 patients and one employee have tested positive for hepatitis C. New Hampshire public health officials suspect the cause is an employee who stole sterile syringes from a hospital lab, then replaced them with used water-filled ones.

So far, the events have led to extensive testing of 700 patients, and the testing continues. Patients from as far back as Oct. 1, 2010 have been called in for testing. Hepatitis C can take one to six months to appear in blood test. Because of this, many patients have been contacted for retesting.

Hepatitis C is the most common chronic bloodborne infection in the country, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). It often does not show immediate symptoms, but 60 to 70 percent of patients contract chronic liver disease and many suffer liver cancer. Some 3.2 million Americans live with chronic hepatitis infections.

The most common cause of hepatitis C is blood transmission, largely through sharing contaminated needles or other equipment to inject drugs, according to the CDC. From 2008 to 2011, the U.S. saw 13 hepatitis C outbreaks related to health care. There were 102 outbreak-associated cases and more than 80,000 people were notified for screening.

Exeter Hospital reported the outbreak to the state on May 15. It closed its cardiac catheterization lab from May 25 to June 5, when the state determined there was no contaminated equipment. The state Attorney General’s Office has launched an investigation.

Some of the patients who have contracted the hepatitis C have retained legal counsel. In New Hampshire, an employer can be held responsible for negligent and careless acts of an employees.


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Medical Errors Take Focus During Patient Safety Awareness Week

stethescope.jpgThe National Patient Safety Foundation (NPSF) is sponsoring its annual Patient Safety Awareness Week from March 4 to March 10. This year, the non-profit Boston organization is focused on increasing awareness about ongoing industry safety efforts and ways both health care professionals and patients can advance them to prevent injuries from medical errors.

The medical community will introduce a new professional certification this week, the Certified Professional in Patient Safety credential. Medical professionals from all disciplines can seek the certification. The NPSF is also focusing on patient engagement and calling on patients and families to communicate and partner with providers on safety efforts. It has released a new Ask Me 3 video, in which it advises patients to ask doctors:

  • What is my main problem?
  • What do I need to do?
  • Why is it important for me to do this?

Patients are advised to carry a notebook and pen and write down the answers to each question. Massachusetts patients can also take these additional measures to protect themselves from medical mistakes:

Physician Profiles Database. You can search for a doctor’s safety record in the state’s Physician Profiles database. The database provides information on criminal convictions, medical malpractice payments and board disciplinary actions during the past 10 years. Click here for the Physician Profiles database.

Online Research. There are many reputable websites which provide information on medical conditions, procedures and hospitals. One database is Medicare’s Hospital Compare, which compiles of a wide range of data, including patient surveys and hospital death rates compared to the national average. Click here for the Hospital Compare database.

Patient’s Advocate. Massachusetts law affords you the right to have a patient’s advocate with you at medical appointments. Having a patient’s advocate allows you to focus on communicating with the medical professional, while your advocate writes down important treatment instructions, the doctor’s response to your questions or ask their own questions when they observe unusual things.

Medical Records. You have an absolute right to obtain your medical records in Massachusetts. You do not have to disclose your reason for seeking your medical records. But you can expect to be charged for photocopies so ask for an estimated fee in advance.

Ask Questions Before Surgery. Talk to your surgeon before the day of the surgery and ask questions at the hospital. Questions may include how does the hospital sterilize its equipment and does the medical staff utilize a written patient safety checklist to make sure they do not miss a step.

Avoiding Medication Errors. Medication errors can happen at the hospital or your regular pharmacy. Before you leave the pharmacy, check the drug name, dose and open the bottle to make sure the medications are imprinted with the drug name and strength. If not, ask the pharmacist to show you the bottle from which medication was dispensed.


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Medical Malpractice, Alarm Fatigue Get Attention

patientalarms_web.jpgAs the problem of alarm fatigue comes under increased scrutiny, Massachusetts General Hospital has implemented steps to improve the medical staff’s response to patient alarms and avoid unnecessary deaths.

Alarm fatigue at hospitals has received much attention in the past year as it has led to several patient deaths and illnesses throughout Massachusetts. Alarm fatigue is a type of medical malpractice caused when nurses and medical staff work among numerous alarms, many false, and grow desensitized to the many sounds and fail to respond to patients.

At Mass. General Hospital, an 89-year-old man died in January 2010 as he recovered from surgery and awaited implantation of a cardiac pacemaker. State and federal investigators reported 10 nurses on duty said they failed to hear alarms beeping at the central nurses’ station. The nurses also said they never saw ticker signs indicating the patient’s dropping heart rate on three hallway signs.

In April, Mass. General Hospital settled a medical malpractice claim made by the patient’s family for $850,000. After an internal investigation, the Boston hospital also implemented several improvements to reduce this form of medical malpractice, including disabling the off switches of 1,100 cardiac monitors, educating nurses about alarms and installing speakers so alarms are heard more clearly. The medical malpractice settlement was reported today by The Boston Globe on Nov. 28, 2011.

Another medical malpractice lawsuit is pending against Mass. General Hospital after a 47-year-old woman died in the hospital in January 2009. The state Department of Public Health found the patient’s cardiac monitor was not setting off alarms.

Other hospitals experiencing problems with alarm fatigue include UMass Memorial Medical Center in Worcester. In September 2011, The Boston Globe reported the hospital had two wrongful deaths over the past four years due to failure to respond to patient alarms. In one case, nurses failed to respond to alarms for almost an hour. The hospital is now taking steps such as holding monthly drills for medical staff and arranging voluntary seminars and webinars for the hospitals 2,100 nurses.

The hospital has also started sending low-battery warnings to nurses’ cell phones and pagers for life-threatening changes in patients.

Hospitals are not alone in addressing the problem. Last month, the Joint Commission, which accredits hospitals, and the U.S. Food and Drug Administration attended a summit in Washington D.C. In future months, they are expected to make recommendations for the medical community.
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Patient Death Rates Rise with July Effect of New Medical Students

A new review of hospital care shows patient deaths at hospitals rise 8 percent in July, making it clear that medical errors increase when the new interns and residents begin treating patients.

“The July Effect,” has been widely discussed and studied for years, but a new paper published in this week’s Annals of Internal Medicine stands apart as the first systematic review of past studies. The review found that in July, patient deaths rise in teaching hospitals as new medical students arrive and 20 to 30 percent of the most experienced doctors leave. The review made the finding based on the largest and best-designed studies of recent years.

The mistakes are not limited to patients having surgery. Last year, The Journal of General Internal Medicine found that fatal medication errors increased 10 percent in July. The increase was greatest in geographic regions with a large number of teaching hospitals.

Patients should use this review to make the best decisions for their care. If you are having a non-emergency procedure, ask your doctor to postpone it until the fall. If you must visit the hospital, bring a detailed medication record and ask a friend or relative to act as your medical advocate. Make sure you have an updated Health Care Proxy.

Under the Massachusetts Patients’ Bill of Rights, you may also refuse treatment. The Patients’ Bill of Rights gives you the absolute right to refuse treatment or examination from a medical student or other staff members. Refusing treatment from a particular person, or from medical students, will not jeopardize your access to proper medical care.

The Boston medical malpractice lawyers at Breakstone, White & Gluck are experienced in handling hospital malpractice cases involving medical errors, surgical malpractice and anesthesia malpractice. If you have been injured in a medical malpractice case, contact us today at 617-723-7676 or use our contact form.